Plato pointing upward, toward absolutes and ideals. Aristotle, with fingers spread wide and toward earth, meaning he emphasized particulars.

How Shall We Then Live? - Lesson Outline





Day 1 - Preamble

Review philosophy terms and our goals in anticipation to reading our first page.

Period of Naturalism : 550 BC

Ionians : 624 - 524 BC

Interested in the problem of the origin and nature of the universe.

The Eleatic School : 550 BC

The oneness and immutability of reality and the distrust of sense-knowledge which appears to testify to the existence of multiplicity and change.

The Pluralist : 500 - 428

No becoming; Infinite divisibility; Universal mixture; Predominance; Homoiomereity (all like parts)

The Atomists : 460 - 370 BC

Materialistic Naturalism asserts that matter is the only reality, and that all the laws of the universe are reducible to mechanical laws.

The Metaphysical Period

The Sophists : 400 BC

No objective standard of the true and false, that that is true which seems to be true, and that that is false which seems to be false.

Socrates : 470 - 399 BC

Determine the conditions of universally valid moral principles a science of human conduct. Self-knowledge is the starting point,

The only true knowledge is a knowledge by means of concepts. The concept, he said, represents all the reality of a thing.

Plato : 428 - 347 BC

The problem of change.

The objectively real Ideas are the foundation and justification of scientific knowledge.

Left side of the Water Shed Principle

Metaphysical Idealism: The doctrine that nothing exists except ideas or minds; material reality is an illusion. The mind is the sole existing thing.

Aristotle : 384 - 322 BC

The problem of change.

Universal (ideas) in particular things

Right side of the Water Shed Principle

Metaphysical Materialism: The doctrine that nothing exists except matter in motion (material reality). The mind is just a material entity.

The Ethical Period

Stoicism : 336 - 264 BC

Conceived the world as an intelligent teleological system and subordinated man to the universal will.

Epicureanism : 342 - 270 BC

Viewed the world as a machine.

Skepticism : 365 - 275 BC

Turned its attention to what seemed good in all systems, pieced them together, and presented a world view from the materials at hand.

Eclecticism : 350 BC

Turned its attention to what seemed good in all systems, pieced them together, and presented a world view from the materials at hand.

Greek Science : 300 - 200 BC

Scientific world, from medicine to astronomy.

The Religious Period

Attempt to resolve the problem of human life by recourse to religion.

The Judaic Alexandrian School : 30 BC - 50 AD

An attempt to coordinate Oriental religion with Greek speculation.

Reconcile the truths revealed in the Bible with all that had been said by the Greek philosophers.

The Neo-Pythagorean School : 50 BC

The attempt to construct a world religion upon Pythagorean doctrines.

The Neo-Platonic School : 176 - 242 AD

The attempt to make a religious philosophy of Plato's teaching.

St. Augustine : 354 - 430 AD

World was created by God from nothing, through a free act of His will. Time is a being of reason ("rens rationis") with a foundation in things which through becoming offer to the mind the concept of time as past, present, and future.

The Period of Scholastic Philosophy (Middle Ages)

The Dialecticians : 1033 - 1182

Intellect as unable to reason without being enlightened by God

Beginning of Modern Humanism

Renaissance

Rejection of scholastic authority, renewed interest in classical antiquity, and excitement about the prospect of achieving scientific knowledge

Reformation

Modern and Contemporary Philosophy

Empiricism : 1561 ...

Reliance on experience as the source of ideas and knowledge. More specifically, empiricism is the epistemological theory that genuine information about the world must be acquired by a posteriori means, so that nothing can be thought without first being sensed.

Francis Bacon : (1561-1626)

John Locke : (1632-1704)

Isaac Newton : (1642-1727)

David Hume : (1711-1776)

Rationalism : 1538 ...

Rene Descartes : 1596 - 1650

Blaise Pascal : 1623 - 1662

Enlightenment : 1689 ...

Placed great emphasis on the use of reason in the development of philosophical, social, political, and scientific knowledge.

Voltaire : 1694 - 1778

Kantian Criticism : 1724 - 1804 (Immanuel Kant)

... "not a matter of WHETHER we posses such knowledge but HOW"

Impossible to gain knowledge of the world by either reason or sense experience alone

Idealism : 1762 ...

Only mental entities are real, so that physical things exist only in the sense that they are perceived.

Idealism is the philosophical view that the mind or spirit constitutes the fundamental reality

Objective idealism accepts common sense realism (the view that material objects exist) but rejects naturalism (according to which the mind and spiritual values have emerged from material things)

Subjective idealism denies that material objects exist independently of human perception and thus stands opposed to both realism and naturalism

Positivism : 1798 ...

Natural science, based on observation, comprises the whole of human knowledge.

Karl Marx : 1818 - 1883

Utilitarianism : 1748 ...

The doctrine that human individuals live only for the benefit of the state or society, from which all rights are derived.

Jeremy Bentham : 1748 - 1832

James Mill : 1773 - 1836

John Stuart Mill : 1806 - 1873

Friedrich Nietsche : 1844 - 1900

Complete rejection of the existence of human knowledge and values or denial of the possibility of making any useful distinctions among things.

Critical Idealism : 1848 ...

Kant stated that it is not perception that forms reason, but reason that forms perception: knowledge is not gained by perceiving nature immediately, but through the mediation of the consciousness. Therefore human beings are not machines and their personality is not static but dynamic and progressive.

German Psychologism : 1832 ...

Laboratory in the world dedicated to experimental psychology

Wilhelm Wundt : 1832 - 1920

"Father of Experimental Psychology" and the "Founder of Modern Psychology"

American Idealism : 1855 ...

American

Insights into the interplay between fate and freedom in human history.

The New Idealism : 1836 ...

French Revolution era

Lays great stress upon dynamism, voluntarism or action.

Evolutionism : 1809 ...

Charles Darwin : 1809 - 1882

Pragmaticism : 1839 ...

Disagreed with Pragmatism's defiinition of truth and their methods.

Pragmatism : 1842 ...

A doctrine that is a form of naturalism which denies the legitimacy of philosophical problems and methods and claims that science is the only knowledge which is exact and ultimate.

Psychoanalysis : 1856 ...

A method of psychotherapy developed by Sigmund Freud. By the methods of free association and dream analysis, the origins of neurotic (cf) disturbances may be elucidated and brought into consciousness.

Sigmund Freud : 1856 - 1939

Neo Positivism : 1882 ...

(logical empiricism, logical neopositivism, logical positivism)

Logical analysis of scientific knowledge.

Existentialism : 1813 ...

Emphasizes the primacy of individual existence over any presumed natural essence for human beings.

Soren Kierkegaard : 1813 - 1855

Analysis of despair and freedom

Intuitionism : 1859 ...

Reliance on unmediated awareness as a criterion of truth. In logic and mathematics, intuitionism denies the independent reality of mathematical objects and the principle of excluded middle. In moral philosophy, intuitionism is the metaethical theory that moral judgments are made by reference to a direct, non-inferential awareness of moral value.

Phenomenology : 1908 ...

Philosophical method restricted to careful analysis of the intellectual processes of which we are introspectively aware, without making any assumptions about their supposed causal connections to existent external objects.

Philosophical Hermeneutics : 1900 ....

How one interprets the actual intended meaning of something.

Neo-Realism : 1838 ...

False -> Principle which states that consciousness constitutes reality.

False -> The statement of Pragmatism which makes man the measure of things.

The Frankfurt School : 1898 ...

Developed the methodology of critical theory.

They tried to exhibit dialectically the contradictions imposed upon modern human beings by varieties of social organization that abuse formal rationality in order to deny power to classes of citizens.

Critical Rationalism : 1902 ...

Firstly, "How do we know what we know, and how can we tell whether it is true or not?".

Secondly, "What is the best way to solve problems".

Objectivism : 1905 ...

Metaphysics: Objective Reality (Nature, to be commanded, must be obeyed.)

Epistemology: Reason (You canít eat your cake and have it, too.)

Ethics: Self-interest (Man is an end in himself.)

Politics: Capitalism (Give me liberty or give me death.)

Cultural Theory : 1885 ...

Concerned with subjectivity and power--how human subjects are formed and experience their lives in cultural and social space.

Structuralism : 1885 ...

Method of interpreting social phenomena in the context of a system of signs whose significance lies solely in the interrelationships among them.

PostModernism : 1885 ...

Abandonment of Enlightenment confidence in the achievement objective human knowledge through reliance upon reason in pursuit of foundationalism, essentialism, and realism. In philosophy, postmodernists typically express grave doubt about the possibility of universal objective truth, reject artificially sharp dichotomies, and delight in the inherent irony and particularity of language and life.

Deconstructionism : 1885 ...

Interpretive method that denies the priority or privilege of any single reading of a text (even if guided by the intentions of its author) and tries to show that the text is incoherent because its own key terms can be understood only in relation to their suppressed opposites.

Scientism :

The doctrine that nothing exists except that which can be measured by the instruments of science. Reality = the material universe.

Politicism :

The dogma that all human problems are political in nature and the solution must be a political one. Public polls determine truth and morality.

The Revival of Classical Realism : 1882 ...

Objectivism.  The Pillars of Intellectual Insanity.




Chapter 1 - Ancient Rome

Page 24
Why Christians were killed ?




Chapter 2 - The Middle Ages

Page 32
Christian struggle with Jesus prayer
"... be in the world and not of it."



Chapter 2 - The Middle Ages

Page 35
Church saw problems with Roman / Pagan music and so it disappeared




Chapter 2 - The Middle Ages

Page 35
Monasteries created because the groups were to have no money, having given their all to the poor




Chapter 2 - The Middle Ages

Page 48
Renaissance begins and Middle Ages end 1300 - 1550 roughly




Chapter 2 - The Middle Ages

Page 55
Grace vs Nature Views




Chapter 3 - The Renaissance

Page 57
Thomas Aquinas introduced the seeds of Humanism into the Church.




Chapter 3 - The Renaissance

Page 60
Renaissance moved toward modern Humanism.



Chapter 3 - The Renaissance

Page 71
With the movement is the loss of anything with meaning.




Chapter 4 - The Reformation

Page 79
Reformation




Chapter 4 - The Reformation

Page 80
Martin Luther (1483 - 1546)




Chapter 4 - The Reformation

Page 81
Thomas Aquinas - 1st paragraph.




Chapter 4 - The Reformation

Page 82
How secularism got into Christianity.

1. The Church is an equal to the Bible

2. Human works were required for salvation

3. After Thomas Aquinas - Pagan thought and content added to Christianity.




Chapter 4 - The Reformation

Page 86
We have truths about God, ultimate Universe




Chapter 4 - The Reformation

Page 86
Does man have dignity?
(bottom)



Chapter 4 - The Reformation

Page 89
Reformers destroyed art which had become spiritual images.




Chapter 4 - The Reformation

Pages 94 - 96
Letters to Durer



Chapter 4 - The Reformation

Page 100
Freedom in both North and South




Chapter 5 - The Reformation -- Continued

Page 105
A statement of the effect of the "Gospel" on society.




Chapter 5 - The Reformation -- Continued

Page 106
The Bible is the Basis of Law



Chapter 5 - The Reformation -- Continued

The Constitution of the United States

Comment on Supreme Court Judge Scalia's comments...

Brain Blessed Scalia Nails Judicial Over-Politicization
The Associated Press: - February 14, 2003

"The selection of judges has become over-politicized because too many courts wrongly believe the Constitution should be reinterpreted to fit the times, Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia said Thursday." This man is brilliant. My friends, if I didn't have the brain I have, it would be Scalia's brain I would want. You can't say anything about the judicial confirmation crisis better than this.

Scalia made his remarks to lawyers and law students at the University of Pennsylvania, and went on to say that too many courts wrongfully believe the Constitution should be "reinterpreted to fit the times." This is the false notion that the Constitution is a bendable, flexible, "living and breathing" thing. That's the same as saying you have no Constitution, if you're going to change its fundamental meanings on passing whims.

Scalia blamed empty seats on the bench on both parties, which have blocked the confirmation of judges they disagree with on politics. "I say a pox on both their houses.'' AP: "A self-described 'originalist' and one of the court's most conservative judges, Scalia said he believes the Constitution means the same thing now as it did when it was first drafted, and that it should be read fairly literally." Yes! That's the beauty and the genius of that document.

"If more judges followed the same theory, he said, politics would enter into judicial decisions less often and politicians would be more likely to leave the courts alone. 'We're not looking for good lawyers anymore. The most important thing we look for are judges who will read into the Constitution the rights that we like, and read out of the Constitution the rights that we don't like.''' He's right on the money. What a huge, learned and wise man - a man truly worthy of the title "justice." ]



Chapter 5 - The Reformation -- Continued

Page 109
What are inalienable right?




Chapter 5 - The Reformation -- Continued

Page 109
John Locke (1632 - 1704)




Chapter 5 - The Reformation -- Continued

Page 110
John Locke, Thomas Jefferson ( 1743 - 1826 ) were Christians of the second order

1. One who comes to God through Jesus

2. Living within the Christian culture



Chapter 5 - The Reformation -- Continued

Page 112
Renaissance promoted ruthless autocratic rule



Chapter 5 - The Reformation -- Continued

Chapter
Guilt is a factor? Homewook paper, then discuss.

Discuss Guilt - Each student should have a paper written on this.




Chapter 5 - The Reformation -- Continued

Page 114
Suddenly, we see an urge to confront our sins.




Chapter 5 - The Reformation -- Continued

Page 116
Jeremy Bentham ( 1748 - 1832 ) - Father of Utilitarianism




Chapter 5 - The Reformation -- Continued

Page 117
Christian aid to end slavery.




Chapter 5 - The Reformation -- Continued

Page 118
William Wilberforce ( 1759 - 1833 )




Chapter 5 - The Reformation -- Continued

Page 119
Reformed Presbyterian Church





Slavery Reparation Issue


Chapter 6 - Enlightenment

Page 120
Enlightenment




Chapter 6 - Enlightenment

Page 120
Who is Voltaire ?



Chapter 6 - Enlightenment

Page 126
What are some characteristics of Communism?




Chapter 6 - Enlightenment

Page 127 / 128
Christian vs Humanist philosophy addressing evils of slavery.




Chapter 7 - The Rise of Modern Science

Page 130
Rise of Modern Science




Chapter 7 - The Rise of Modern Science

Page 131
Why did Galileo and Copernicus get into trouble?




Chapter 7 - The Rise of Modern Science

Page 132
Author did not want to emphasize Renaissance and Reformation influenced.




Chapter 7 - The Rise of Modern Science

Page 132
Francis Bacon ( 1561 - 1626 )



Chapter 7 - The Rise of Modern Science

Page 134
Epistemology




Chapter 7 - The Rise of Modern Science

Page 134
Proposition

or




Chapter 7 - The Rise of Modern Science

Page 135
It is said early Modern Scientist tried to discover HOWbut did not try to discover WHY.




Chapter 7 - The Rise of Modern Science

Page 136
Can this statement be true?




Chapter 7 - The Rise of Modern Science

Page 138 - 139
Werner Heisenberg's (1901 - 1976 ) indeterminacy principle




Chapter 7 - The Rise of Modern Science

Page 142
Reaction to statement Greek, Moslems, and Chinese eventually lost interest.




Chapter 7 - The Rise of Modern Science

Page 142
Did rise of Technology from Science originally come from Christian Base?

Christ Based \           / Practical application Technology
              | Science |
 World Based /           \ Intellectual Curiosity




Chapter 7 - The Rise of Modern Science

Page 143
Cause and Effect




Chapter 8 - The Breakdown of Philosophy and Science

Page 144
Plato is finally mentioned




Chapter 8 - The Breakdown of Philosophy and Science

Page 145
Jean - Paul Sartre (1905 - 1980 )




Chapter 8 - The Breakdown of Philosophy and Science

Page 145 - 146
Non Christian Philosophers ( Greek --> )

  • What are pitfalls of reason ?
  • Assumptions
  • Preconceptions
  • Resistance to some conclusions
  • Supposition on Theory
  • Unknowns
  • Do people always make logical choices?
  • Does it seem possible to work out every experience with perfect logic?
  • Example of Illinois footprints in Coal Bed.


Chapter 8 - The Breakdown of Philosophy and Science

Page 146
Non Christian Philosophers ( Early - Pre 18th Century)




Chapter 8 - The Breakdown of Philosophy and Science

Page 146
What was 1st Shift in Modern Science?




Chapter 8 - The Breakdown of Philosophy and Science

Page 147
Ludwig Feuerbach ( 1804 - 1872 )

  • Absolutes
  • Morals
  • Emotions
    • Love
    • Hate
  • Freedom



Chapter 8 - The Breakdown of Philosophy and Science

Page 148
Humanism runs its course -- Pessimism




Chapter 8 - The Breakdown of Philosophy and Science

Page 148
Charles Lyell ( 1797 - 1875 )


Chapter 8 - The Breakdown of Philosophy and Science

Page 148
Charles Darwin ( 1809 - 1882 )




Chapter 8 - The Breakdown of Philosophy and Science

Page 150
Social Darwinism

  • Is there a problem here?



Chapter 8 - The Breakdown of Philosophy and Science

Page 150
What about Genetic Engineering?




Chapter 8 - The Breakdown of Philosophy and Science

Page 152
The Philosophy Switch




Chapter 8 - The Breakdown of Philosophy and Science

Page 152
Modern Man




Chapter 8 - The Breakdown of Philosophy and Science

Page 154
Jean-Jacques Rousseau ( 1712 - 1778 )

  • What profoundly "stupid" thing did Jean say?



Chapter 8 - The Breakdown of Philosophy and Science

Page 156
David Hume ( 1711 - 1776 )



Chapter 8 - The Breakdown of Philosophy and Science

Page 158
Who left Enlightenment to follow Rousseau?

Reason - Enlightenment 
        \ 
         \ 
          Emotion



Chapter 8 - The Breakdown of Philosophy and Science

Page 159
What is Natural Law School of Jurisprudence?




Chapter 8 - The Breakdown of Philosophy and Science

Page 160
What is the Big Problem?




Chapter 8 - The Breakdown of Philosophy and Science

Page 160
Immanuel Kant ( 1724 - 1804 )




Chapter 8 - The Breakdown of Philosophy and Science

Page 162
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel ( 1770 - 1831 )




Chapter 8 - The Breakdown of Philosophy and Science

Page 163
Soren Kierkegaard ( 1813 - 1855 )




Chapter 8 - The Breakdown of Philosophy and Science

Page 165
What was the beginning of everything?




Chapter 8 - The Breakdown of Philosophy and Science

Page 166
What is intellectual suicide ?




Chapter 9 - Modern Philosophy and Modern Theology

Page 167
Modern Philosophy and Modern Theology

  • Signed Algerian Manifesto - 1960
    • which declared the Algerian Was was a dirty war
  • Without values, how could he make this value judgement?



Chapter 9 - Modern Philosophy and Modern Theology

Page 168
Karl Jaspers ( 1883 - 1969 )




Chapter 9 - Modern Philosophy and Modern Theology

Page 170
Aldoses Huxley ( 1894 - 1963 )




Chapter 9 - Modern Philosophy and Modern Theology

Page 171
What else helped people find "meaning" in their heads after drugs?




Chapter 9 - Modern Philosophy and Modern Theology

Page 174
What's Existential Methodology?




Chapter 9 - Modern Philosophy and Modern Theology

Page 174
What's been happening through the ages in regard to the Church and the Secular?




Chapter 9 - Modern Philosophy and Modern Theology

Page 174
What is Theological Existentialism?



Chapter 9 - Modern Philosophy and Modern Theology

Page 175
What is a Rationalistic Theologicalor Religious Liberalism?




Chapter 9 - Modern Philosophy and Modern Theology

Page 176
Karl Barth (1886 - 1968)




Chapter 9 - Modern Philosophy and Modern Theology

Page 177
Dichotomy Problem for Theology




Chapter 9 - Modern Philosophy and Modern Theology

Page 178
God is dead ?




Chapter 9 - Modern Philosophy and Modern Theology

Page 178
Friedrich Nietzsche ( 1844 - 1900 )
Tape




Chapter 10 - Modern Arts, Music, Literature, and Films

Page 182
Chapter 10: Modern Art, Music, Literature, and Films



Chapter 10 - Modern Arts, Music, Literature, and Films

Page 182
What was generation gap?

Adults held values but did not / could not demonstrate why they were values

Youth adopted the God is dead, pessimism, relativism, and so had a large value difference with older folks



Chapter 10 - Modern Arts, Music, Literature, and Films

Page 182
How did we get Monolithic Consensus?




Chapter 10 - Modern Arts, Music, Literature, and Films

Page 183
Meaning Found in Art




Chapter 10 - Modern Arts, Music, Literature, and Films

Page 190
Who was the most absurd artist?




Chapter 10 - Modern Arts, Music, Literature, and Films

Page 190
Quartets of Beethoven ( 1825, 1826 )




Chapter 10 - Modern Arts, Music, Literature, and Films

Page 197
General Culture




Chapter 10 - Modern Arts, Music, Literature, and Films

Page 198
Auguste Comte ( 1798 - 1851 )




Chapter 10 - Modern Arts, Music, Literature, and Films

Page 198
What is Epistemological Base?




Chapter 10 - Modern Arts, Music, Literature, and Films

Page 198
John Loche ( 1632 - 1704 )

What is Empiricism ?



Chapter 10 - Modern Arts, Music, Literature, and Films

Page 199
Invalid Scientific results




Chapter 10 - Modern Arts, Music, Literature, and Films

Page 200
What is Linguistic Analysis?




Chapter 11 - Our Society

Page 206
This Book was written in 1976




Chapter 11 - Our Society

Page 207
Are Universities hot beds of Radical and Destructive Philosophies?




Chapter 11 - Our Society

Page 212
Should the government defend itself from its citizens at any costs?




Chapter 11 - Our Society

Page 215
What did Marx use to make Communism an idealistic solution?




Chapter 11 - Our Society

Page 216
Finally I see the Author pointing out something I've been thinking all along




Chapter 11 - Our Society

Page 217
What is Sociological Law?




Chapter 11 - Our Society

Page 217
What do you think about this?




Chapter 11 - Our Society

Page 217
Is this a True Statement?




Chapter 11 - Our Society

Page 223
Harvesting the dead




Chapter 11 - Our Society

Page 223
One man and a Bible can direct society




Chapter 11 - Our Society

Page 225
Do we have an "Elite" in America?




Chapter 11 - Our Society

Page 227
Personal Peace and Affluence




Chapter 11 - Our Society

Page 227
Our Society




Chapter 12 - Manipulation and the New Elite



Chapter 12 - Manipulation and the New Elite

Page 229
There is that pride again




Chapter 12 - Manipulation and the New Elite

Page 231
What is Reductionist?

One who would reduce man to an electrochemical machine.



Chapter 12 - Manipulation and the New Elite

Page 234
Anyone noticing Dr. Crick is holding himself out of the Box?




Chapter 12 - Manipulation and the New Elite

Page 238
3 Brains




Chapter 12 - Manipulation and the New Elite

Page 242
How come we were outraged by Hitler years before Stalin bothered us?




Chapter 12 - Manipulation and the New Elite

Page 243
What is News?




Chapter 13 - The Alternatives




Chapter 13 - The Alternatives

Page 246
Economic Break Down




Chapter 13 - The Alternatives

Page 247
Today War seems framed in Islam & Infidels language.




Chapter 13 - The Alternatives

Page 248
Chaos of violence




Chapter 13 - The Alternatives

Page 248
Radical redistribution of the wealth of the world.




Chapter 13 - The Alternatives

Page 248
Growing Shortage of food and other Natural Resources in the World




Chapter 13 - The Alternatives

Page 250
What is Pragmatism?





Active Faith tape


Plato pointing upward, toward absolutes and ideals. Aristotle, with fingers spread wide and toward earth, meaning he emphasized particulars.

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